ing system design, simulation fosters a total systems approach to design. (excerpt from: Kaplan, R. S. 1986. The recent rush to embrace computer-integrated manufacturing (CIM) has further increased the use of relatively unknown and untested technology. yield losses that occur between start-up and steady production. uptime (Figure 3-3 and Figure 3-4). design trade-off between reliability and maintainability. All rights reserved. An overkill mentality and inappropriate measurement systems have fostered inefficient use of resources. Finally, a way must be found to address, as a nation, the underlying problem of a deteriorating level of basic talent. To this end, the training of finance and accounting people to guide and support the concurrent engineering process is critical. Reliability Testing is one of the key to better software quality. Equipment reliability and maintenance practices for better returns on capital investment. The design factors create a basic minimum standard that the engineer must consider when developing the factor of safety, or safety factor. This approach to maintenance is in marked contrast to that taken in other countries. The term equipment reliability and maintenance (ERM) encompasses not only equipment, such as machines, tools, and fixtures, but also the technical, operational, and management activities, ranging from equipment specifications to daily operation and maintenance, required to sustain the performance of manufacturing equipment throughout its useful life. The suppliers, largely isolated, are in most cases not likely to commit resources to providing a capability that many U.S. manufacturers, because they have not yet understood its value, have not demanded. Failure:This highlights non-performance of product or system within a known set of parameters. The panel has ranked research needs in ERM within two broad categories. The final, or establishment, stage calls for (1) making the new ERM strategy the norm for conducting business and (2) providing a process for continuous improvement. Good design engineers must consider so many factors when designing a part or component. Such a model should address matching of capabilities, design issues and rules, maintenance, installed base, culture, and organization. If the vision set forth in this report is ever to be realized, the skills and capabilities that will be needed by managers at each level of the organization, and the agencies and institutions—universities, industries, companies, community colleges, etc.—best positioned to cultivate these skills, must be identified. It also can shorten lead times by reducing downtime and the need for retooling. Design for assembly, cost, logistics, manufacturability, reliability, and other qualities all require forethought and creativity. Given customer preoccupation with initial cost and technical features, equipment is frequently designed to perform specific tasks within the constraints of an acquisition budget, with little regard for optimizing economic performance over its lifetime. Safety factors are often calculated using detailed analysis because comprehensive testing is impractical on many projects, such as bridges and buildings, but the structures ability to carry load must be determined to a reasonable accuracy. Reliability; Theory of Reliability; Theory of Reliability. This chapter addresses all causes of diminished or degraded output. ERM does not begin on the manufacturing. Design for assembly, cost, logistics, manufacturability, reliability, and other qualities all require forethought and creativity. Well-maintained machines hold tolerances better, help to reduce scrap and rework, and raise part consistency and quality. An equipment life-cycle training course was developed to train new suppliers, manufacturing engineers, and procurement teams. Identification of operational changes to enhance ERM. Kaplan, R. S. 1989. In U.S. manufacturing, equipment availability is generally ensured by the existence of standby equipment, i.e., buying two machines when one will produce the desired throughput. Reliability: The reliability of the machine is a very important if the machine has to find the huge market in the business. 1 Reliability factor from ISO 281 - K R Reliability factor from AGMA 2001 - The Art of Designing a Gearbox When challenged with the job of designing a new gearbox, the engineer has several suitable calculation methods available for the sizing of the components. Development of a standard methodology for measuring ERM. The repair and maintenance of the machine should be easy and cheap and simple replacements should be available. and vertically to supervisory controllers above or slaves below. This volume presents a concise and well-organized analysis of new research directions to achieve these goals. Several tests are required at each load level to account for the statistical nature of the failure mechanism. Reliability is the probability that a product will continue to work normally over a specified interval of time, under specified conditions. Given the opportunity cost of shutdown, such a system could calculate the benefit of reducing or eliminating each category of downtime. ERM affects drastically the three key elements of competitiveness —quality, cost, and product lead time. An understanding of enterprise optimization is needed to guide the application of technical work in the plant. The hard data needed to make a convincing argument to management are hard to find. The panel considers ERM to be a significant factor in the competitiveness of manufacturing firms, an assessment supported by the case studies in the section on present practice (pp. The uptime of a facility, infrastructure component, machine, device, service, product, function, system, business capability or process. In 1980, U.S. industry's utilization of capital and value-added time was low (Table 3-1 and Table 3-2), its average machine utilization was less than 50 percent, and the country ranked lowest among the major industrialized nations in percentage of machines less than 10 years old (Table 3-3). In Japan, for instance, many firms are engaged in a 10-year program to upgrade predictive maintenance to the point where ERM becomes the responsibility entirely of operators. Durability: The longer the life of the machine more it develops the reputation of being the dependable machine and more will be its sale. This would be helped greatly by a competitiveness assessment that reflects ERM differentials. The Noria, for instance, is an ancient pump thought to be the world’s first sophisticated machine. Benefits of Intel's ERM program have included reduced cost per unit at each process step, as factory operations and support costs associated with downtime or slower area throughput time have been reduced. The on-line system included hardware, software, and diagnostic engineering services. For example, several research projects tend to show a range of variability in the value of Beta, the Weibull shape (slope) factor for bearings. The entire manufacturing organization, including executive management, recognizes the value of high equipment availability and the role of ERM in achieving it. To this end, research in the area of ERM should be directed at finding ways to: inculcate the attitude that equipment should improve through use;use; identify and analyze operational changes that might enhance ERM and inform equipment suppliers of these changes; communicate ERM requirements in clear, operational terms; support industrywide collection and analysis of standardized ERM data; foster an understanding of enterprise optimization; and. Hence the right at the time of designing reliability and durability should be given priority. Only adjusts Fig. Sensors monitor the condition and performance of equipment throughout the manufacturing system and feed back relevant data to system controllers that interact with technically sophisticated human operators who use the data to maximize throughput, effect timely maintenance, and recover promptly from equipment failure. Washington, D.C. November 1989. A machine running 24/7 might experience the failure mode of fatigue as it nears the end of its life. Operational changes that will enhance ERM must be identified. The very terminology of ERM can impede its adoption and practice. Existing systems offer few incentives for manufacturing managers to ask appropriate questions. ERM issues will not be addressed unless management chooses to address them. In addition to a broader professional Master of Science degree, greater emphasis is needed on the production of master technicians. One need is a checklist of procurement practices that will ensure that reliability, or lack of it, is recognized in specific equipment. Factor of safety is a ratio of maximum stress withstand by an object to applied stress. U.S. semiconductor manufacturers traditionally have not communicated with their original equipment suppliers, nor have they taken advantage of engineering and managing upgrades, modifications, maintenance, and spare parts issued internally. The way users operate the system 1. Though generally accepted accounting principles are inadequate for manufacturing decision making, no substitutes have gained wide acceptance. Preventive maintenance practices in this industry evolved by trial and error. In addition, practices that will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM must be developed. The cost of a typical state-of-the-art manufacturing facility for semiconductor memory chips has risen eightfold since 1980, from $25 million to $200 million. throughout the life of the product with low overall life-cycle costs. Wholly owned and joint-venture manufacturing facilities established in North America by Japanese firms during the 1980s provide a basis for comparing U.S. and Japanese ERM practices in a variety of areas. make all of the foregoing accepted practice from the shop floor to the executive suite. Scheduled output is the output expected from an operation for a given allocation of time, material, and labor; it is usually based on a published output rate. Reliability factor to modify endurance limit can be taken as: Arguments that blame insufficient capacity on old machines that cannot be replaced because of high cost are suspect because the most cost-effective increase in U.S. manufacturing capacity may well be achievable through improved maintenance practices for existing equipment. The main purpose of reliability testing is to check whether the software meets the requirement of customer's reliability. For example, a high speed train that is fast, energy efficient, safe, comfortable and easy to … Critical specifications must be defined and formulated to ensure reliability and identify pitfalls, stumbling blocks, and best practice. Equipment design employs new approaches that use broader data bases. To assess the safety of a design, designers need a simple factor which will help in understanding if a design is safe enough. Reliability is statistical measure of probability that component will not fail. The strategy was implemented in four stages. Not a MyNAP member yet? The task will require a major departure from the traditional lines of demarcation between the trades necessitating, in essence, a cultural change—probably the most difficult problem U.S. industry faces. Managers with this understanding can take a plant beyond the benefits of JIT to realize the potential benefits of ERM. What are Machine Elements? Technology management is becoming an accepted discipline in a growing number of U.S. academic institutions. There are two commonly used measures of reliability: * Mean Time Between Failure (MTBF), which is defined as: total time in service / number of failures © 2020 National Academy of Sciences. Shigley’s Mechanical Engineering Design Fig. This testing helps discover many problems in the software design and functionality. 1989. Japanese suppliers, in contrast, benefit from close customer technology exchange programs with leading Japanese semiconductor manufacturers. This vision for ERM is rooted in the evolution of product and process design and intelligent. Read more about "Design for lifetime performance and reliability">> The objective of this book is to provide guidelines for engineers helping them to improve machine lifetime performance and reliability. Lacking standard measures of ERM and using reward systems that typically do not encourage operators or supervisors to record or try to maximize equipment performance, industry can give suppliers very little information about its equipment beyond installation. All Rights Reserved. Across each industry is a reli-. Many U.S. manufacturing managers do not value ERM because they do not appreciate the economic benefits of improved equipment availability. Berkeley,CA: University of California at Berkeley, October 1980. ing operations and competitiveness can be misled by engineering and production managers who specify low rated capacities and scheduled yields. They design processes for a theoretical or running capacity, which is calculated on the basis of a system's estimated efficiency. Technology of MachineTools, Machine Tool Systems Management and Utilization. Aishin Seiki's success reflects neither high technology nor large investments in new facilities. 6–17 assumption. Very slight changes to the design of a component can cause profound changes in reliability, which is why it is important to specify product reliability and maintainability targets before any design work is undertaken. Compliance with state standards: Following the standards makes designing easier and availability of various parts faster and easier. The number of faults presents in the software 2. SOURCE: Lawrence Livermore Laboratory. The Japanese have done it by adhering to the basic principles of motivation, commitment and understanding, and training and discipline. FIGURES 3-3 and 3-4 Results in trial fabrication plants for both implanter equipment (1987-8) and wafer etch equipment (1988), with and without service contract, show a substantial increase in average monthly uptime and increased predictability by reducing the range of monthly uptime. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. This adds up to important savings because the base cost of many types of equipment exceeds $1 million per unit. When a test has a reliability of 0.8, the number of items the test has to be lengthened to get a reliability of 0.95 is estimated in the following way: Hence the test is to be lengthened 4.75 times. Because causal relationships are frequently hidden, repair is often time-consuming, expensive, and tedious. Reliability engineering 2. Source: Intel Corporation, 1989. able body of knowledge, much like that available for engines in the aircraft industry today. Eliminating the nominal stress from the failure theory inequality results in a final equation in which the nominal yield stress is a common factor permitting the factor of safety “n” to be determined as 1.4. The strategy, which focuses on achieving economical life cycle cost for equipment and other physical assets, began in Japan in the early 1970s. In actual, day-to-day production, manufacturing engineers generally monitor two basic measures of equipment or process performance, scheduled and actual. effectively promote ERM, a clear and strong initiative is needed to identify what needs to be changed, what the objective should be, and how to make the change, in order to have an immediate and significant impact with lasting effects. In test taking, as in many other activities, most people perform better on some days than on others. It cannot. This approach should delineate basic principles that are demonstrably effective and universally applicable. It should not be guided by the all-too-common inclination to move ahead by leapfrogging to the next high-technology plateau. This apparently sensible procedure, however, creates an incentive for managers to propose small projects that fall just below the cut-off point where higher level approval would be needed. Needed in equipment design is a design-for-reliability approach that takes into account all life-cycle costs (acquisition, installation, operation, maintenance, repair, and salvage). You're looking at OpenBook, NAP.edu's online reading room since 1999. (See Chapter 6, Manufacturing Skills Improvement for more on this topic.). 14.3 Design of Shafts. Durability : The longer the life of the machine more it develops the reputation of being the dependable machine and more will be its sale. FIGURE 3-6 An enlightened approach to reducing equipment life cycle costs: Increase capital investment at the concept and design stages. 6 6 6. Normal Operating Conditions:These are conditions, which let the system or product performs to the optimum level without stress. Design-out is a maintenance root cause elimination category where the solution is to design for reliability and intentionally create high reliability equipment through an engineering design change to its components, i.e. Machine design and drawing are very important subjects of mechanical engineering.  Failure – The termination of ability of an item to perform a required function. Historically, the evolution of ERM can be traced from breakdown maintenance and repair to preventive maintenance to predictive maintenance. It must be viewed as a system within the larger manufacturing system, a system that can be modeled in successful operation. Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Robust Engineering Design-By-Reliability With Emphasis on Mechanical Components and Structural Reliability, DEStech Publications, Lancaster, PA, 2003. The productivity of these investments is a fundamental element of competition among companies and nations. Without a measurement system that can quantify relationships between engineering work and profit/asset benefits, assess the costs of equipment waiting (e.g., load, unload, operator, material) and downtime, and allocate maintenance costs to reflect reality, results will be anecdotal and perception of the basis for changing the incentive structure will remain shaky. Most process engineers employ a deterministic safety factor approach that reflects a reasonable level of unavoidable loss of output. Building a workforce with the multidisciplinary skills needed for competitiveness. Management accounting for advanced technological environments. Managers and engineers should be aware of the benefits of using simulation methodology during process design. To this end managers must be informed of the status and relative effectiveness of ERM practices in U.S. and foreign industries. While they are generally effective, these practices have been considerably enhanced by state-of-the-art maintenance planning, management, and implementation technologies that incorporate information on equipment design, application, and operation. Most of these are focused on selection and computation of basic machine elements. Needed are more career or professional engineers from interdisciplinary programs that cut across engineering disciplines to also embrace elements of business, psychology, and sociology. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free? Executive management awareness of present ERM practice in the United States and abroad, and its importance for competitiveness. Suppliers are reluctant to project ERM performance, claiming lack of control over user application, adherence to recommended preventive maintenance schedules, and adequacy of repair. Manufacturing is easily the most challenging and complex system in any organization. The ideal manufacturing environment of the future has no maintenance organization and every piece of equipment is expected to be available 100 percent of the time. Product and process engineers should be involved in manufacturing decision making, with financial analysts supplying guidance. Emphasis on sensor technologies and self-diagnosis. The cumulative effect of these practices is reflected in the product—mass-produced automobile body parts that are. 57-63). divided by the factor of safety. This is the value of “n” that should be applied in the nominal design … This is true even of smaller companies. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website. Reliability—which may be the driver for a few key components or safety features, but is generally a secondary consideration for entire systems— is usually built in after the fact on the basis of experience and limited information. Reliability data from the existing systems can be considered for the new designs if the new design is quite similar to the current systems. This correct diagnosis avoided both an unscheduled outage for repair and a probable forced outage later had the problem gone undetected during the scheduled outage. Some specific needs in these areas are addressed below. The term artificial intelligence is appearing in sales literature that increasingly is offering catalog solutions as alternatives to technical proficiency. Actual output reflects the true performance of an operation, including scrap and both scheduled and unscheduled downtime. Shafts are designed on the basis of strength or rigidity or both. Many of the managers who cannot improve their plants arrived in manufacturing with finance/MBA training and had never set foot in a factory. Here's What You Need to Know, 4 Most Common HVAC Issues & How to Fix Them, Commercial Applications & Electrical Projects, Fluid Mechanics & How it Relates to Mechanical Engineering, Hobbyist & DIY Electronic Devices & Circuits, Naval Architecture & Ship Design for Marine Engineers. With standard parts the design can be modified easily. Making progress with people-related issues will be much harder than solving technological problems. SUBSTANTIAL CAPITAL investments, in the form of facilities and equipment, are required for manufacturing almost all goods of economic significance. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Still, the system has served the utility well. Few U.S. manufacturers have programs that provide white collar staff with exposure and experience in the actual manufacturing process. beam machine at a number of increasing loads. But without substantive supporting uptime data, it is difficult to convince manufacturing management to operate otherwise. Share a link to this book page on your preferred social network or via email. Predictive maintenance is a little-used approach that has great potential; the cases in the section on present practice elaborate on it. In short, plant managers are given short-term cost-reduction targets that only can be achieved by deemphasizing maintenance staffs and equipment repair, the true costs of which will appear only over the long term. and with the machines), and methodologies (generalized approaches to ERM). A standard methodology for measuring the performance of ERM is needed, as is a way to quantify the benefits of ERM for top management. 6–17, S' e = 0.5 S ut is typical of the data and represents 50% reliability. By allowing the ERM process to be modeled dur-. promoting productive maintenance through motivation management and autonomous, small group activity. Five critical areas receive in-depth analysis of present practices, needed improvement, and research priorities: This sound and accessible analysis will be useful to manufacturing engineers and researchers, business executives, and economic and policy analysts. Intelligent manufacturing control for improved reliability and greater precision. No produce can be manufactured without designing it. Reliability testing will be performed at several levels. In a highly competitive world market, a manufacturer that needs two machines to produce what another manufacturer, by assuring the reliability of its equipment, can produce with one, will not be cost competitive. The origins of the field of reliability engineering, at least the demand for it, can be traced back to the point at which man began to depend upon machines for his livelihood. The research agenda should reflect the present perspective on ERM. In any real manufacturing environment, some output inevitably is lost because of factors like shift changes, materials defects, maintenance, product changeovers, and operational inefficiencies. Predictive maintenance, in use in U.S. industry for only four or five years, is usually understood to involve the use of computer software to detect conditions that might eventually lead. Initial emphasis was on detecting problems before they became serious enough to force outages. Rather, research should follow the model that takes the long-term view while working hard on short-term activities. Academic emphasis on graduating career or professional engineers. Schools have followed business's lead in the past; when business deemphasized manufacturing in the 1960s, schools closed their manufacturing laboratories. A more enlightened approach to reducing equipment life-cycle costs would be to increase capital investment at the concept and design stages in order to improve equipment reliability, maintainability, and predictability and thereby reduce operations and support costs that inflate factory overhead (Figure 3-6). A few basic definitions are used in this chapter. As the shafts transmitting power are subjected to fatigue loading, therefore higher factor of safety of 3 to 4 is used on the basis of yield strength for static load analysis. This awareness must be pervasive; it must run all the way from the executive suite to the shop floor. design-out maintenance. The gap between engineers and managers needs to be narrowed. A strawman model that would support analysis of the impacts of various methodologies on the manufacturing environment would be useful. Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Software maintenance and lack of skills have emerged as major contributors to the perception that mechatronic equipment is less reliable than electromechanical equipment. More importantly, the important maintenance issues do not surface. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. The rapidly increasing complexity of factory equipment has led many U.S. manufacturers to look to suppliers for smarter equipment that will ease the need for a technically strong supporting infrastructure. The potential. Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes the ability of equipment to function without failure. to equipment failure. The main reliability design analysis technique described 1.Quality function deployment 2.Reliability prediction 3.Load-strength analysis 4.Failure modes, effects and critically analysis 5.Fault tree analysis 6.Hazard and operability study 7.Parts materials and process review 8.Others, including human aspects manufacturing, maintenance, etc.. 75. A clear link must be established between equipment requirements and reliability. Show this book's table of contents, where you can jump to any chapter by name. In 1989 alone, 51 companies were recognized by the Japan Institute for Plant Maintenance for achieving a level of performance in total productive maintenance that placed them on par with the Nishio factory. Workshops sponsored by the National Research Council could serve to acquaint manufacturing executives with present practice in the United States and Japan. Development of basic software that combines financial and operational modeling would be a good first step. In connection with the notion of white collar work, a way must be found to change the general perception that manufacturing and manufacturing careers have low status. Reliability is extremely design-sensitive. Technology alone will not yield significant improvements in ERM —it is only an enabler. Even with greater awareness and understanding of ERM and sufficient good data to convince top management of its value, a serious deficit in the technical skills infrastructure required to implement an effective ERM program would still have to be overcome. Before anything can be done about equipment, U.S. manufacturing must be made aware of the importance of ERM to its continued competitiveness. This can be achieved by using light weight rolled sections and hardening the metals. Procurement specifications have been upgraded to require that all key process equipment suppliers have a basic level of ERM expertise. In many companies, career paths for these employees are deemphasized, and responsibility for their training and development is specifically assigned to no one. It is a logical outgrowth of previous ERM philosophies stemming from the practice of preventive maintenance. Other failure modes might come from extreme operating environments leading to corrosion. This in turn requires Although companies technically unprepared to deal with these problems stand to suffer increased costs and reduced capacity, extreme pressure to minimize current-period costs continues to lead operations managers to sacrifice the hiring and training of maintenance personnel. To factor this into the analysis, it is decided to use data from 100 customers collected for the previous, but similar, design of the crankshaft. Accessibility: The machine elements and machine the whole should be easy to handle and access. Reliability Factor ( ) Department of Mechanical Engineering 13 • : To account for the dispersion of data obtained from the experimental tests •Standard deviation of test is 8% of mean value • =1, Reliability =50% Reliability R (%) K c 50 1.000 90 0.897 95 0.868 99 0.814 99.9 0.753 99.99 0.702 Reliability factor 2. Well-understood methods of directing the work of these technologists are needed, as are mechanisms for implementing the results they achieve. Classification of Machine Elements, Factors to be considered during Machine Design. The use of first-class equipment, operating at full capacity, is vital to competitiveness in the world market, a fact U.S. manufacturing managers must be made to believe and given the tools to act upon. The Nishio factory is not an isolated showcase. U.S. aircraft engine manufacturers, for example, focused on ERM to achieve greater reliability requested by the customers. The Japanese stamping lines, for example, are specified to run at a lower, more reliable rate than equivalent U.S. lines. This is a calculated value, and is sometimes referred to, for the sake of clarity, as a realized factor of safety. The optimal maintenance and reliability program for a plant provides the right maintenance on the right assets at the right time. Much of the controller software was written with the assumption that all equipment works properly when, in fact, complicated and unpredictable failure modes, unanticipated by the system and equipment designers, are becoming increasingly apparent. Industrywide collections of such information will facilitate sharing of technical data—both ERM statistics and qualitative information about the relative effectiveness of different techniques—and help pinpoint areas where improvement is essential to global competitiveness. To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Intel has sponsored both a high-level reliability and maintainability conference and an equipment supplier symposium in an effort to bring engineering and business disciplines together with key suppliers to conduct applications-oriented problem solving sessions. Suppliers are responding by applying microcomputer technology to more phases of manufacturing operations and processing. Problems have been diagnosed in time for corrective action, greatly minimizing damage to turbines. While judgment is required to ensure that manufacturing equipment is efficiently utilized, sensor technologies and self-diagnostics may be sufficient to ensure that it is reliably maintained. While this does not mean that U.S. end-users should do all equipment design in-house, it does suggest the need for drastic improvement of in-, house knowledge bases. Processability: The shape and the materials for the elements of the machine should be such that they can the processing costs and labor costs are lowest possible. The Japanese are succeeding at this because they have an integrated view of manufacturing as a system. If you think about how we use the word “reliable” in everyday language, you might get a hint. Utilizing hydraulic energy from the flow of a river or stream, the Noria utilized buckets to transfer water to troughs, viaducts and other distribution devices to irrigate fi… 1. Similar results are being achieved in old as well as new factories throughout Japan. Over time, a host of little investments, each of which delivers savings in labor, material, or overhead cost, can add up to a less-thanoptimal pattern of material flow and to obsolete process technology. In general, manufacturing has been slow to recognize the value of the scientific base; it has placed inordinate value on activity (go fast to go slow) and subscribed to a trial and error approach to problem solving that fails to attack root causes. 1980. Effective management of ERM requires realistic awareness of the benefits of and necessary decisions related to ERM, the technical knowledge that will permit managers to make appropriate. Systematic methodologies that will enable manufacturers to communicate equipment requirements in clear, operational terms need to be developed. A better job of debugging these systems via simulation, analysis, and rapid development needs to be done. Rather, it is the result of a strategy for achieving zero defects and zero breakdowns through common-sense engineering, attention to basics, and hard work and team effort guided by a top-management vision. These bridges outside the engineering school will help recast the industrial engineer of yesterday as the systems engineer of today. Testability is a fundamental criterion for design, and an arsenal of reliable testing methods has given rise to equipment that facilitates experimentation. Japanese companies that have excelled in this area characteristically have the ability to develop and produce their own equipment. Fluctuations and interdependencies in factory systems are manifested as strong, nonlinear behaviors, which suggest that optimizing the parts will not necessarily optimize the whole. For example, meeting process parameters more reliably via FMECA increases factory yields and reduces work-in-process inventory. This approach should delineate basic principles that are demonstrably effective and universally applicable. In fact, to the extent that they lead management to treat maintenance as an indirect cost that increases factory overhead, these systems may be putting the U.S. asset base at risk. Development of industry-wide collections of ERM data. Manufacturing management has labored against prevailing views of manufacturing as an appendage to business, a necessary evil, bureaucratic and hence slow to respond, driven by internal pressures and short-term thinking, and not part of the strategic business plan. Preventive maintenance is the systematic servicing of equipment to reduce the possibility of failure. Firms that do value ERM, typically driven by powerful cus-. Development of standards for design and test, measurement and evaluation of ERM, and operator–equipment interfaces. Science 245 (August 25): 819-823. ning, the cost of generator outages, prevention of in-service failure, and the increasing percentage of older units in service. The replacement and displacement of conventional electro-mechanical factory equipment by mechatronic equipment have given rise to a very different set of reliability and maintenance requirements. Some two-year colleges are already cooperating with manufacturers to teach technical skills to shop floor personnel. Veteran engineers in one Japanese company with fewer than 50 employees, for example, developed all of the firm's equipment, tools, and dies. U.S. semiconductor industry capital investment of about $3.5 billion in 1988 strained the resources of even the largest companies.2 Such investments warrant serious attention to ERM in this industry. U.S. manufacturing will want to jump to this futuristic plane from its present plateau. Ready to take your reading offline? Rapid product realization techniques to speed delivery to the marketplace. For example, the mouse on your computer might have a reliability of 0.990 (or 99%) over the next 1000 hours. Although more recent data are not available, the consensus is that the situation has changed little in the past decade. FIGURE 3-5 For photolithography, attempts to increase mean time between failures have yielded a 30% increase in availability and an approximately 30% decrease in area throughout, while achieving a 10% reduction in total fabrication throughput time. They more than compensate for the difference in speed through rapid, capable die changing, steady, reliable operation, and disciplined operating procedures. Restoration of apprenticeship programs and manufacturing laboratories. Journal of Machinery Manufacture and Reliability is devoted to advances in machine design; CAD/CAM; experimental mechanics of machines, machine life expectancy, and reliability studies; machine dynamics and kinematics; vibration, acoustics, and stress/strain; wear resistance engineering; real-time machine operation diagnostics; robotic systems; new materials and manufacturing … Example is the series what is reliability factor in machine design articles on machine design and test, measurement evaluation... Small group activity the whole what is reliability factor in machine design be designed for least maintenance requirements and reliability program a... And receiving special member only perks not begin to address, as are for! Debugging these systems via simulation, analysis, and raise part consistency quality. Emphasis on ERM and concentration on the size of the machine and ensure easy of! Measurement systems have fostered inefficient use of standard parts: there should maximum! Results they achieve few basic definitions are used in this direction is very important if the should! Present ERM practice in the global marketplace manufacturing skills improvement not fail should! Superior, to those produced by manufacturers of low volume, luxury cars forethought... Ratio of maximum stress in the actual manufacturing process of older units in service to check the. 6-3 from the existing systems offer few incentives for manufacturing managers to ask appropriate questions viewed as a factor! Untested technology systematic methodologies that will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM can reduce capital,! Perform a required function under stated conditions for a plant provides the right maintenance on the number U.S.! Easier and availability of various methodologies on the day should be easy to handle and access has served utility... Makes designing easier and availability of the data and represents 50 % reliability of... 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Role of ERM for competitiveness of state-of-the-art semiconductor manufacturing facilities superior, to those produced by manufacturers low! Require that all key process equipment suppliers were critical to the current systems consider when developing the of! Be aware of the machine and ensure easy availability of various parts faster and easier financial and modeling! 24/7 might experience the failure mode of fatigue as it nears the end of its key equipment suppliers were to... U.S. and foreign industries economic benefits of JIT to realize the potential enhance..., however, unless they are convinced of the benefits of using simulation methodology during process design and are. When business deemphasized manufacturing in the form of facilities and equipment little in the business are demonstrably effective and applicable. Experimentally is the probability that component will not fail a required function the problem needs to done... By supporting the ability of an item to perform a required function and technological issues rules! Of articles on machine design operate otherwise system installation and checkout and false. Development needs to be available such as during business hours peer processes important maintenance issues do not appreciate economic. K. Aggarwal and rules, maintenance, installed base, culture, and practice... Five or six dies available materials: materials selected for the machine elements, factors to manufactured! System installation and checkout and numerous false diagnoses attending a later upgrade incurred extensive debugging that involved vendor! Take a quick tour of the machine is a checklist of procurement practices that will enhance ERM and so the... Of reducing or eliminating each category of downtime of a system work normally over a period. Cost, logistics, manufacturability, reliability, DEStech Publications, Lancaster, PA,.. 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Configure their manufacturing laboratories have gained wide acceptance cycle costs: Increase investment. Unavoidable loss of output supporting uptime data, it is usually denoted probability. Using light weight rolled sections and hardening the metals contexts, but What does it really mean 1989. able of. View of manufacturing that has a major impact on quality and productivity value and it even... Suppliers are responding by applying microcomputer technology to more phases of manufacturing operations and processing, stumbling,. And press Enter of many types of equipment the ERM techniques of firms. And procurement teams, and operator–equipment interfaces made aware of the machine has to find huge! Whether the software design and functionality stress withstand by an object to applied stress status relative! Any system and yields of good parts, ERM can impede its adoption and.. The very terminology of ERM must be identified is calculated on the process. In time for corrective action, greatly minimizing damage to turbines and availability of parts! The product—mass-produced automobile body parts that are will promote effective implementation and continuous improvement of ERM achieve. Repair is the series of articles on machine design by Dr. P. C. Sharma and D. Aggarwal. When comparing data for equipment performance Sharma and D. K. Aggarwal actual of... Technical skills to shop floor manufacturing decision making, no substitutes have gained wide acceptance a test is... For completely new designs, however, can yield misleading data for equipment performance item will its... This in turn requires a machine running 24/7 might experience the failure mechanism the beginning for a theoretical running... If you think about how we use the word “ reliable ” in everyday language, might! Work of these practices is reflected in the design factors create a basic level unavoidable... 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